Energy transport

Energy transport

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Area of ​​Expertise - physics

While there is no interaction with the environment in a closed system, an exchange of energy or substances can take place in closed or open systems. In these cases, energy is transported from one system to the other.

The energy transport can take place in different forms. In some cases it is tied to a mass transfer, such as in the transfer of kinetic or electrical energy, in heat conduction and convection and in the propagation of sound waves. Energy transport without mass transport occurs when electromagnetic waves propagate.

Learning units in which the term is dealt with

Propagation of electromagnetic waves25 min.

PhysicsElectricityElectromagnetic waves

This learning unit deals with the theoretical principles of the propagation of electromagnetic waves. Starting from Maxwell's equations, the mutual induction of the electric and magnetic fields is considered.

Basics of heat transport45 min.

Chemistrytechnical chemistryBasic operations

This learning unit gives an introduction to the topic of heat transport and briefly explains the terms and mechanisms that play a role in heat transport.

Heat transfer60 min.

Chemistrytechnical chemistryBasic operations

This learning unit deals with the heat transfer through flat walls and in particular the heat transfer through pipe walls, which is important in industrial applications.

Transport phenomena45 min.

ChemistryPhysical chemistrythermodynamics

The three different modes of transport and their coefficients are described.

Heat conduction through walls30 min.

Chemistrytechnical chemistryBasic operations

This learning unit covers heat conduction through flat single-layer and flat multi-layer walls as well as heat conduction through cylindrical single-layer and cylindrical multi-layer walls.

Master thesis: Transport and chemistry at the tropical tropopause - Influence of the Asian monsoons

Understanding the exchange processes through the tropopause, as well as their coupling to the climate, is a central topic in atmospheric research. The global Lagrangian chemical transport model CLaMS should be used to deal with this complex of topics. off lows) resolves particularly well.

The following work deals with the influence of the Asian monsoon circulation on the composition of the air at and above the tropical tropopause, in the so-called TTL (Tropical Tropopause Layer). The composition of the TTL, its annual cycle and the contribution of the Asian monsoon circulation with regard to all climate-relevant trace gases (H.2O, CO, ozone, HCN) can be examined. Both episode studies (with regard to measurement campaigns) and long-term scenarios (with regard to climatological relevance) are carried out.

Previous knowledge of the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere would be desirable. Interested parties should enjoy working with computers and teamwork.

Doctoral candidate (f / m / d) in physics, materials science, chemistry, renewable energies or a related subject

The HZB is one of the leading research institutes worldwide in the field of perovskite-based photovoltaics. The junior research group "Perovskite Tandem Solar Cells", headed by Prof. Steve Albrecht, was able to publish two world record efficiencies in 2020 for perovskite / CIGS and perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells. Dr. Eva Unger, headed by the junior research group "Hybrid Materials Formation and Scaling", recently published a perovskite solar cell with an efficiency of 20.8% produced with the scalable slot die coating. In addition to further optimizing these fascinating technologies, the aim of both groups is to develop and gain understanding of manufacturing processes that can be scaled to industry-relevant cell surfaces.

With this PhD position, scalable deposition processes such as vacuum co-evaporation or printing techniques such as slot nozzle coating and the perovskite materials produced with it should be better understood. On this basis, the performance of perovskite-based single and tandem cells is to be optimized.

The PhD position is part of the "PrEsto" research project, in which partners from top German research and industry are working together on perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells. It is embedded in the broad scientific infrastructure of the HZB, especially the Helmholtz Innovation Lab HySPRINT. The doctoral thesis takes place in collaboration with the Competence Center Photovoltaics Berlin (PVcomB), where highly efficient silicon solar cells are produced as sub-cells in a perovskite / silicon tandem. This collaboration should enable both basic research and research on industry-related applications.

Thesis topic: Perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells - development of scalable manufacturing processes for highly efficient cells

The doctoral candidate is a member of the Graduate School “Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells” (HyPerCells).


  • Development and optimization of perovskite single and tandem solar cells using scalable processes: vacuum evaporation and printing techniques such as slot nozzle coating
  • Gaining understanding of perovskite layer growth and the resulting optoelectronic material properties
  • Detailed optical and electrical characterization as well as simulations of perovskite single and tandem solar cells to investigate the loss mechanisms


  • Master's degree in physics, materials science, chemistry, renewable energies or a related subject
  • Solid knowledge of how solar cells work and of semiconductor physics
  • Experience in the production of perovskite solar cells
  • Advantage: good knowledge of programming and simulations
  • Scientific mindset with the highest level of self-motivation for scientific projects
  • very good knowledge of English

The employment contract is limited to 36 months. Payment is based on the collective agreement for the public service (TVöD-Bund).

We are trying to increase the number of female employees and are therefore particularly happy to receive applications from women. Severely disabled people will be given preference if they are equally qualified.

We look forward to your application via our application management system up to 18.05.2021. For reasons of data protection law, we are unfortunately unable to consider applications that we receive by email or post in the application process.

Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy GmbH
Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin

We research complex materials in order to find solutions to questions of energy conversion. Our research includes solar cells, solar fuels, materials for new energy-efficient information technologies as well as electrochemical energy storage and catalysis. On our electron storage ring BESSY II we have unique possibilities for experimentation. We also support an international user community with our high-performance infrastructure.

. is the formula for success for our personnel policy. We offer all employees extensive internal and external training opportunities with special programs for young scientists. Flexible working hours, home office and teleworking are just a few of our tools for combining work and family. The HZB sees its diversity as a prerequisite for successful scientific collaboration and an impetus for people with a wide variety of backgrounds.

Prof. Dr. Steve Albrecht
Phone: +49 30 8062 41334