Chemistry

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR)

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR)


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MRI - magnetic resonance tomography

Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT, also magnetic resonance tomography, nuclear spin tomography or engl. Magnetic Resonance Imaging - called MRI) is an imaging method of great importance in clinical diagnostics, which is based on the same principle as NMR spectroscopy.

General

Under tomography (Greek tomos "cut", graphein "write") in general one understands slice recording methods with which the spatial structure of an object can be determined; The main area of ​​application is medicine.

example

Emission computer tomography (ECT): Imaging by layer-by-layer radiation measurement of temporarily deposited radionuclides: measurement of positron radiation from 15O-carbon dioxide → positron emission computed tomography (PET) measurement of the photon emission 99Tc resp. 123I → Single-Photon-Emission-Computer-Tomography (SPECT) Use for the detection of disturbances of the glucose or O2-Metabolism and blood circulation

Computed tomography (CT): imaging procedure based on X-rays

Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT): Imaging method based on NMR spectroscopy

CT and MRI can partially replace each other, and sometimes they also provide completely different information. Computed tomography is better suited for assessing bone damage, while MRI is better able to depict soft tissue processes. One advantage of CT is that it can be performed more quickly and with less effort, as well as the lower running costs. On the other hand, there is no radiation exposure with MRI, which can be quite considerable with CT. In addition, with MRI it is possible, even without the use of contrast media, to delimit tissues that cannot be distinguished in the CT based on very specific features.

Historical

The beginnings of imaging processes using NMR spectroscopy go back to the researchers Lauterbur and Mansfield. Lauterbur produced the first NMR image in 1973, and Mansfield developed applicable imaging techniques by processing the signals mathematically.

In 2003, both scientists received the Nobel Prize in Medicine.


Video: ΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΣΥΜΠΕΡΙΦΟΡΑΣ ΒΙΟΜΟΡΙΩΝ ΜΕΣΩ ΦΑΣΜΑΤΟΣΚΟΠΙΑΣ NMR. BEHAVIOR OF BIOMOLECULES BY NMR SPECTROSCOPY (May 2022).