Compact course regulation

Compact course regulation

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P controller

With a P controller, there is a linear relationship between the actual value of the controlled variable (x) and the manipulated variable (y). The classic P-controller equation describes the relationship between the control deviation (e = w - x) and the manipulated variable (y): y (t) = KR. E (t)

Permanent deviation

An output signal of the P controller (the manipulated variable y) is greater the greater the control deviation. As can be seen from the classic P-controller equation, the controller only emits a signal if there is a control deviation. If the control deviation is equal to zero, the calculated control signal is also equal to zero. This has far-reaching consequences. If, for example, one looks at an oven control in which the actuator is the heating, this means that when the target temperature is reached, the heating no longer receives an actuating signal and therefore switches off. As a result, the temperature of the furnace drops and the controlled variable deviates again from the setpoint. The control deviation is initially so small that it is not sufficient to reach the setpoint (small control deviations require low values ​​for the manipulated variable.) Only with larger deviations does the system succeed in counteracting the control deviation. As a result of this behavior, a P-controller always has a permanent control deviation.

Working point

Since most systems require a certain amount of energy to reach a given setpoint (operating point), the above controller equation can also be used in the modified form shown below: y (t) = y0 + KR. E (t)

An offset y0 introduced. If no system deviation occurs and y is0 chosen optimally, then y leads0 to the fact that the working point is reached. If no further malfunctions occur, the controller would no longer intervene in the process.

Current training

Online: Surfactants in theory and practice (603/21)

Location: On-line
Speaker: Prof. Dr. Thomas Peter Knepper
Type: FB

from 09.09.2021 to 10.09.2021

Contact details:
fb @
Tel .: +49 69 7917-364 / -291
Fax: +49 69 7917-475

Detergents and auxiliary agents are used in many areas of daily life and in special industrial applications. Experts in this field will provide an overview of the latest developments. In order to be able to understand the mechanisms of action of the respective surfactants and detergents, the basics of individual product groups and ingredients are taught. The common analysis techniques as well as the significance of the legislative requirements for product development and the assessment of environmental relevance are presented.

In addition to general information on detergents and detergents, the individual product groups and various ingredients as well as analysis techniques are presented in this course. The relationship between composition and mechanism of action is explained in detail. Important physical-chemical aspects of surfactants as the basis of micelle formation are highlighted. With the presentation of modern surfactant analysis and the degradability of different surfactant classes, aspects of the environmental relevance of individual ingredients and their ecological effects are outlined. Likewise, the product development according to the specifications of the legal requirements for the biodegradability of surfactants in detergents and cleaning agents is presented. The event will be supplemented by current aspects of environmental regulation and an outlook on the state of legislation.

Target group:
Engineers and users in industry as well as young professionals (including academics) in the field of surfactants Bachelor, M. Sc., Chemical technician

Membership fee: 820 EUR

Non-member fee: 900 EUR

Online course: Compact course Certified Project Manager Business Chemistry GDCh (415/21)

Location: On-line
Speaker: Prof. Dr. Jens Leker
Type: FB

from 13.09.2021 to 18.09.2021

Contact details:
fb @
Tel .: +49 69 7917-364 / -291
Fax: +49 69 7917-475

The aim of the course is to impart the basics of competitive analysis. First, an insight into the most important elements of accounting and balance sheet analysis is given. The seminar participants learn how a balance sheet is structured and what information can be obtained from the profit and loss account. Building on this, the meaning of key figures is explained, which are of decisive importance for the competition analysis. Key figures based on EBIT, cash flow or debt level are presented and their significance for the competitive analysis is worked out. Subsequently, the basics are imparted in order to be able to independently compare companies using the figures available from annual reports.

The course focuses on:
■ Identification of competitors
■ Importance of the annual financial statements
■ Accounting according to the German Commercial Code (HGB)
and the International Accounting Standards (IAS)
■ Significance and development of balance sheet figures
■ Competitive analysis of chemical companies
and pharmaceutical industry as well as bio- and nanotechnology

Target group:
Young chemists and young professionals

Membership fee: 1,900 EUR

Non-member fee: 1,980 EUR

Online course: Fundamentals of practical NMR spectroscopy for technical staff (334/21)

Location: On-line
Speaker: Dr. Johannes C. Liermann
Type: FB

from 14.09.2021 to 16.09.2021

Contact details:
fb @
Tel .: +49 69 7917-364 / -291
Fax: +49 69 7917-475

NMR spectroscopy is one of the most important and versatile analytical techniques for characterizing molecular systems and is almost indispensable, especially in preparative chemistry. The course is intended to provide a basic understanding of how modern digital NMR spectrometers work and enable participants to carry out common NMR experiments and to adjust important parameters if necessary. In addition, typical sources of error and problems when performing NMR experiments are discussed.

The course focuses on:
■ Construction of an NMR spectrometer
■ Sample preparation
■ Preparation of the spectrometer (lock, shim, tuning /
Matching, pulse determination)
■ Important experimental parameters
■ Prepare and conduct simple 1D experiments
with and without decoupling
■ Prepare and conduct simple 2D experiments
■ Basics of processing and evaluating the spectra
■ Typical errors and problems

Target group:
Technical staff, chemical engineers, chemists, food chemists and other natural scientists

Membership fee: 1,300 EUR

Non-member fee: 1,380 EUR

Online course: Vibration spectroscopy for chemical quality and process control (503/21)

Location: On-line
Speaker: Prof. Dr. Heinz Wilhelm Siesler
Type: FB

from 09/14/2021 to 09/15/2021

Contact details:
fb @
Tel .: +49 69 7917-364 / -291
Fax: +49 69 7917-475

The aim of the event is to develop the theoretical and instrumental basics, the structure / spectra correlation as well as the possible applications of modern vibration spectroscopy. The focus on practical examples will help select the most appropriate of the discussed techniques for individual problems. Participation in this course will also enable you to better assess the advantages and disadvantages of vibrational spectroscopy compared to other analytical methods and to evaluate vibrational spectroscopic data more efficiently.

The course gives an introduction to the theoretical basics
and the interpretation of the spectra and provides an overview
the latest equipment technology (including imaging techniques
and the new generation of handheld
Devices) of vibration spectroscopy (Raman, medium
Infrared (IR), Near Infrared (NIR)). Also on the importance of
Far infrared (FIR) spectroscopy for structure elucidation
of solids is indicated. In addition to practical device demonstrations
and the demonstration to develop a
chemometric calibration model will cover a wide range
of application examples for the chemical and physical
Analysis of solids, liquids and gases discussed.
Sample preparation and possible artifacts (and their
Avoidance) are dealt with in detail and the qualitative
and quantitative analysis are used for both univariate
also for multivariate, chemometric evaluation algorithms
discussed. The treatment of application examples
for the chemical, pharmaceutical, polymer and food industries
as well as for environmental issues becomes the relevance
these spectroscopic techniques for the material and
Life sciences
as well as for chemical quality and
Illustrate reaction control.

Target group:
Chemists, physicists, biologists, physicians, chemical / physics engineers and laboratory technicians in the chemical, pharmaceutical, polymer and food industries as well as in government research institutes

Membership fee: 690 EUR

Non-member fee: 770 EUR

Classroom course: Basics of general and inorganic chemistry for employees from production and technology (948/21)

Location: Bad Dürkheim
Speaker: Dr. Andreas M. Schneider
Type: FB

from 09/20/2021 to 09/23/2021

Contact details:
fb @
Tel .: +49 69 7917-364 / -291
Fax: +49 69 7917-475

The aim of the course is to acquire the basic knowledge of general and inorganic chemistry necessary for employees in production and technology. The participants should recognize general laws and understand the relationships between the structure and properties of substances. In addition, reference is made to the handling of dangerous substances and questions of environmental protection are discussed.

Chemical raw materials and basic inorganic chemicals
as starting materials for chemical production or the
Value chain:
■ Atom, molecule, element and compound
■ Metals and non-metals
■ acids and bases
■ Oxidation and reduction
■ Energy content and chemical reaction
■ electrochemistry
■ Large-scale processes using the example of sulfuric acid,
Chlorine and ammonia production
■ Simple stoichiometric calculations

Target group:
Semi-skilled employees from production, technology and laboratory with little basic knowledge of chemistry

Membership fee: 1,600 EUR

Non-member fee: 1,680 EUR

Classroom course: Use of statistical software R: Basics, data mining and machine learning (643/21)

Location: Frankfurt am Main
Speaker: Prof. Dr. Bernard Ludwig
Type: FB

from 09/20/2021 to 09/21/2021

Contact details:
fb @
Tel .: +49 69 7917-364 / -291
Fax: +49 69 7917-475

In many chemical areas in research and production, data is collected - e.g. for quality controls, production optimization, sales forecasts and pattern recognition for automation. As part of the Industry 4.0 concept, an understanding of artificial intelligence and thus of data mining processes and machine learning is also important - e.g. for optimizing networked production systems. The aim of the event is that the participants learn evaluations with the powerful and free statistical software R, which offers a wide range of methods for evaluations.

Part I gives an introduction to R. The participants
are enabled to optimize target variables (e.g.
Product yield) depending on categorical (e.g. production processes)
and quantitative variables (e.g. temperature)
and carry out significance tests (e.g. purity comparison) and
apply chemometric methods. R is used for:
■ Descriptive and inferential statistics (including classic tests,
Analysis of variance)
■ Exploratory statistics (including statistical modeling and
■ Chemometrics (including principal component analysis and partial
Least squares regression)
Part II describes the use of R in data mining processes
and machine learning based on case studies.
Classification and regression problems are covered
with unsupervised and supervised learning. Featured
Methods are:
■ Cluster and factor analyzes
■ Random Forest and Support Vector Machine
Classifications and regressions
■ Neural networks

Target group:
The event is aimed at chemists, pharmacists, chemical engineers and chemical-technical employees - in industry and universities - who are involved in data evaluation, based on classic significance tests (e.g. use of R to compare different product batches with the help of significance tests) via standard regressions and analyzes of variance (e.g. yield maximization) for newer methods of data mining and machine learning (e.g. for improved pattern recognition and regressions in multivariate data sets).

Membership fee: 990 EUR

Non-member fee: EUR 1,070

Classroom course: Modern Rietveld Analysis (389/21)

Location: Frankfurt am Main
Speaker: Prof. Dr. Robert E. Dinnebier
Type: FB

from 09/23/2021 to 09/24/2021

Contact details:
fb @
Tel .: +49 69 7917-364 / -291
Fax: +49 69 7917-475

The Rietveld analysis has made tremendous progress in recent years, and new fields of application are constantly being developed. The aim of the course is to bring the participants closer to modern Rietveld analysis in theory and practice using a series of examples. After the course, the participants should be able to know the possibilities and limits of the method and to be able to carry out simple Rietveld analyzes independently.

The following topics are dealt with:
■ Basics of the Rietveld analysis
■ Reflex profile functions, fundamental parameters, Pawley /
■ Determination of the instrument function
■ (An) isotropic line broadening, microstructure parameters
■ Indexing and determination of room groups
■ Correction factors and their meaning
■ Global instead of local optimization (crystal structure determination)
■ Penalty functions, constraints, restraints and rigid
Bodies (RB)
■ Rietveld refinement and difference Fourier analysis
■ Quantitative phase analysis (QPA), determination of the
amorphous part
■ Sequential and parametric Rietveld refinement
■ Models for describing stacking faults
■ Alternative description of the crystal structure (symmetry methods)
■ Application of the pair distribution function (total scattering)

Target group:
Chemists, pharmacists, physicists, mineralogists, materials scientists and engineers from research, development and quality control who are interested in crystal structure, microstructure and quantification of nano- to microcrystalline powders

Membership fee: 930 EUR

Non-member fee: EUR 1,010

Classroom course: Rheological characterization of emulsions and suspensions (595/21)

Location: Nuremberg
Speaker: Prof. Dr. Karl-Heinz Jacob
Type: FB

from 09/27/2021 to 09/28/2021

Contact details:
fb @
Tel .: +49 69 7917-364 / -291
Fax: +49 69 7917-475

This course shows how rheology can be used effectively to develop and optimize disperse products (creams, varnishes). Rheology offers far more possibilities than the measurement of flow curves. Basics and practical examples help the chemically oriented employee in the development laboratory or in quality assurance to understand how rheology works as an analytical method and what information it can provide about the structure of emulsions or suspensions.

The event gives an overview of the theoretical
Basics of rheology and the possibilities
modern rheology measurement technology for characterization
disperse products. The range of disperse products is sufficient
from paints and varnishes to care products to
Lubricants. A wide range of application examples
become the possibilities and limits to
Characterization of such products is discussed. The treatment
practical examples in the laboratory illustrate the
Relevance of rheology for product development and
Quality control.
In theory and practice it is shown which information
rheological measurements on the build-up of dispersions
can deliver. In addition to this, there are also the results
included by methods,
the information about particle size distributions,
Zeta potential, particle shape, salt load
etc. deliver.

Target group:
Chemically and technically oriented employees who want to use rheology to solve practical problems in research and routine. The focus is on the application of rheology in the development and characterization of products based on suspensions and emulsions.

Membership fee: 910 EUR

Non-member fee: 990 EUR

Online course: Selected topics in preparative organic chemistry for laboratory technicians (056/21)

Location: On-line
Speaker: Prof. Dr. Holger Butenschön
Type: FB

from 09/27/2021 to 09/28/2021

Contact details:
fb @
Tel .: +49 69 7917-364 / -291
Fax: +49 69 7917-475

The aim of the course is to refresh the participants' knowledge and to expand it through new, modern aspects of preparative organic chemistry, in particular current topics such as organometallic chemistry, synthesis planning and catalysis.

The course focuses on:
■ Interesting facts about chemical reactions and synthesis planning
■ Organometallic chemistry with lithium, magnesium and
Zinc (synthesis, structure, reactions, highly active metals)
■ Carbene complexes in organic chemistry (Fischer,
Schrock carbene complexes, carbonyl olefinings, olefin metathesis)
■ Transition metal catalysis (history, hydroformylation,
Ziegler catalysis, hydrogenation, cycloisomerization,
Catalysis with Pd, Au and Ru)
■ Modern oxidation reactions: From dimethyldioxirane to Jacobsen-Katsuki epoxidation

Target group:
Motivated laboratory technicians as well as bachelors and similarly qualified people

Membership fee: 860 EUR

Non-member fee: 940 EUR

Online course: Modern HPLC-MS methods in food and feed analysis (674/21)

Location: On-line
Speaker: Prof. Dr. Hans-Ulrich Humpf
Type: FB

Contact details:
fb @
Tel .: +49 69 7917-364 / -291
Fax: +49 69 7917-475

The aim of the course is to convey the basics, applications and current trends of HPLC-MS / MS and HPLC-HRMS in food and feed analysis.

The course is designed to provide participants with an overview of modern HPLC-MS / MS and HPLC-HRMS techniques
as well as current developments, trends and applications
point out. In addition to the basics, in particular
using the example of various contaminants (e.g. mycotoxins,
Pesticides, PFT) and in the context of protein analysis (e.g. allergens)
methodical and instrumental trends and new developments presented.

The focus is on:
■ Basics of HPLC-MS / MS and HPLC-HRMS
■ Multi-methods
■ Screening using HPLC-HRMS
■ Quantification procedure
■ Sensitivity and selectivity
■ Matrix problem

Target group:
Food chemist, analytical chemist, chemical engineer

Membership fee: 570 EUR

Non-member fee: 650 EUR

Decision of the GDCh board on coronavirus (COVID-19)

Due to the ongoing corona pandemic, the Executive Board decided to cancel or postpone all face-to-face events of the GDCh until December 31, 2021, in addition to its resolutions of March 16, May 5 and November 4, 2020. Instead, the GDCh structures are encouraged to switch to virtual formats. Exceptions to this rule are only possible in well-founded individual cases and require careful examination in close consultation and in agreement with the management.

If the situation changes fundamentally for the better, this decision will be adjusted accordingly.

Friction and locomotion

For hard surfaces, the law of friction applies in good approximation.
This means that a body opposes a sideways pushing force without slipping until the maximum adhesive force is exceeded, in the following sliding phase it opposes the movement with a sliding friction force that is almost independent of the pushing speed.

In the case of rubber, which is known to be soft and which is preferably used to produce great adhesion in vehicles and shoe soles, such a sharp distinction between adhesion resistance and sliding friction cannot be drawn. The rubber gives way slightly when there is a lateral force and creates a counterforce that initially grows stronger and stronger. At a certain speed, this counterforce then decreases. Tire manufacturers have carefully examined this behavior.

On the right you can see the coefficient of friction (not differentiated between static and dynamic friction) as a function of the so-called slip.

At the Brakes is the Slipthe ratio of the speed of the rubber against the road to the speed of the vehicle.

At the Start up is the Slip the ratio of the speed of the rubber against the road to the sum of the vehicle speed and the speed of the rubber against the road.

Tire comparison tests
Excerpts from the results of tire comparison tests carried out by an automobile magazine are shown on the right. The mean coefficient of friction is not given (which we only added in addition), but the braking distance from a set speed, which is different in the dry test than in the wet test.
From these tests it can be seen that there are definitely differences between individual tires.

Stu & shydi & shyum and Leh & shyre

We recommend the following preparatory courses for this degree program:

Here you will find information about studying at the Institute of Biology, the range of courses and information for students from all disciplines.


The Institute of Biology supervises various degree programs with courses:

In addition, the Institute of Biology offers a large number of courses as a service for other natural and technical sciences.

It is no longer possible to enroll in these courses:

To Expiry According to examination regulations, it is no longer possible to take further exams in this course.
This regulation also applies to the diploma or master’s examination itself.

Student counseling

Please use the for your admission to the master’s programOnline application process of the University of Kassel. There you will find all the necessary forms and the individual steps for admission to the master’s degree are described in detail.

Study Committee

Prof. Dr. Christoph von Ballmoos (chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacy), president
Prof. Dr. Matthias Blau (physics and astronomy), vice president
Prof. Dr. Zoltan Balogh (Dean)
Prof. Dr. Sebastian Baader (Mathematics / Statistics / Computer Science) Deputy Prof. Dr. Ilya Molchanov
Prof. Dr. Matthias Blau (Physics and Astronomy) Deputy Prof. Dr. Adrian Jäggi
Prof. Dr. Christoph von Ballmoos (chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacy) Deputy Prof. Dr. Natalie Banerji
Prof. Dr. Volker Heussler (Biology) Deputy Prof. Dr. Eric Allan
Prof. Dr. Marco Herwegh (Geosciences) Deputy Prof. Dr. Martin Grosjean
Prof. Dr. Thomas Schildknecht (representative upper middle management) Deputy Prof. Dr. Urs Wenger
vacant (representation lower middle class)
vacant (representing students)

The study committee is the body responsible according to the faculty regulations, which advises and supports the faculty in all matters relating to study plans and examinations.

The main tasks are

  • Resolution on applications, in particular
    • Placement in a bachelor's degree course with crediting of achievements already made
    • Admission to a master’s degree
    • Crediting of completed study achievements
    • Approval of individual timetable, extension of study time

    Furthermore, the study committee is responsible for further questions and decisions in connection with the study, for which the current RSL or faculty regulations do not declare any other body to be responsible.
    The same applies to transactions that are explicitly assigned by the faculty or the dean.

    VHS offers basic courses in chemistry and physics

    The adult education center will hold a six-part compact course "Basics of Chemistry" from September 4th on every Wednesday evening. Classes take place from 6.30 p.m. to 8.45 p.m. in the VHS building in Pempelfort, Franklinstra & szlige 41-43. Among other things, it is suitable as an introduction to and refreshment for the school and training sector as well as for the subjects of chemistry, biology, medicine and pharmacy.

    Basic terms and the structure of substances, the individual substances and models in chemistry as well as the periodic table of the elements and the atomic nucleus with an electron shell are explained. The basics of inorganic and organic chemistry, for example the various chemical bonds and the individual types of reaction, are also taught. The course fee is 99 euros.

    At the same time, the adult education center will be offering the eight-week intensive course "Important basics of physics for school and training" from Wednesday, September 25th. Here, too, the subjects relevant to the study are refreshed, starting with the physical parameters and mechanics through to thermodynamics and the building blocks of matter. The course fee is 132 euros. Classes also take place from 6.30 p.m. to 8.45 p.m. in the VHS building in Pempelfort, Franklinstra & szlige 41-43.

    Compact course regulation - chemistry and physics

    The compact course of the RUB "Chemical Problems in the Field of Environmental Protection" deals with heavy metals and metalloids, their environmental pollution and the limit values.

    Of heavy metals and metalloids
    Compact course on chemical problems in environmental protection
    RUB and the State Environment Agency of North Rhine-Westphalia provide information on pollutants

    Where do heavy metals and metalloids come from, which have a heavy impact on our environment? How can they be tracked down and measured, what contribution can scientific knowledge make in order to derive limit values ​​and assessment criteria? The compact course on & quot; Chemical Problems in the Field of Environmental Protection & quot; which the Faculty of Chemistry of the RUB organizes together with the State Environment Agency of North Rhine-Westphalia, Essen, and Unikontakt, contact point University / Business of the RUB, deals with these and numerous other questions (Organization: Dr. rer . nat. Peter Bruckmann, head of the environmental monitoring department in the State Environment Agency of North Rhine-Westphalia and lecturer at the Faculty of Chemistry at the RUB). This year the compact course is dedicated to the main topic "Heavy Metals in the Environment".

    The compact course will take place on October 12th and 13th, 2000, 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., in lecture hall HNC 10.

    Information for those interested

    Attending the compact course is free of charge and does not require any specific prior knowledge. It is aimed at those interested in finding out more about "Heavy Metals in the Environment", at employees of companies and public institutions as well as at students. Representatives of the media are very welcome.

    Dr. Gerhard Schwaab, Faculty of Chemistry at RUB, Chair of Physical Chemistry II, NC 7/71, Tel .: 0234 / 32-24256, Fax: 0234 / 32-14183, eMail: [email protected]

    Dr. Peter Bruckmann, State Environment Agency North Rhine-Westphalia, Wallneyer Str. 6, 45133 Essen, Tel .: 0201 / 7995-1257, Fax: 0201 / 7995-1575, eMail: [email protected]
    Dr. Wolfgang Budach, Unikontakt, FNO, Tel .: 0234 / 32-22199, Fax: 0234 / 32-14646

    Features of this press release:
    Biology, chemistry, sea / climate, environment / ecology
    Colorful science

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